The LSRII has allowed our researchers to perform multiparameter flow cytometry, keeping us competitive in the field and allowing us to obtain new data and information from patient samples. This equipment was secured at a particularly opportune times as data began to emerge that a single marker (such as production of interferon gamma) of immune responses in HIV-1 specific T cells is inadequate in defining protective immune responses in HIV-1 infection. The LSRII has allowed us to extend the scope of our work to assess other markers that may be associated with a protective immune response. The equipment also allows us to extend our work in immunology to TB. In addition, researchers from other UKZN departments have been offered training on the LSRII to develop thier skills and broaden their research activities.